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"We should take care not to make the intellect our god; it has, of course, powerful muscles, but no personality."

-Albert Einstein


Manganelli, R., M. I. Voskuil, G. K. Schoolnik, M. Gomez, and I. Smith. Role of the extracytoplasmic-function sigma Factor sigmaH in Mycobacterium tuberculosis global gene expression. Mol. Microbiol. 45(2):365-74 2002.  [supplementary data]

Rodriguez, G., M. I. Voskuil, B. Gold, G. K. Schoolnik, and I. Smith. IdeR, an essential gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Role of IdeR in iron-dependent gene expression, iron metabolism, and oxidative stress response. Infect. Immun. 70(7):3371-81. 2002. [supplementary data]

Manganelli, R., M. I. Voskuil, G. K. Schoolnik, and I. Smith.   The Mycobacterium tuberculosis ECF sigma factor E: role in global gene expression and survival in macrophages.  Mol. Microbiol. 41. 2001.  [supplementary data]

Sherman DR, Voskuil M, Schnappinger D, Liao R, Harrell M, Schoolnik GK.  Regulation of the M. tuberculosis hypoxic response gene alpha-crystallin. PNAS 2001.   [supplementary data]

Schoolnik GK.  The accelerating convergence of genomics and microbiology.  Genome Biol. 2001;2(4):REPORT S4009.

Schoolnik GK, Yildiz FH.  The complete genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae: a tale of two chromosomes and of two lifestyles.  Genome Biol. 2000;1(3):REVIEW S1016.

Yildiz FH, Dolganov NA, Schoolnik GK.  VpsR, a Member of the Response Regulators of the Two-Component Regulatory Systems, Is Required for Expression of vps Biosynthesis Genes and EPS(ETr)-Associated Phenotypes in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor.  J Bacteriol. 2001 Mar;183(5):1716-26.

Barry CE 3rd, Wilson M, Lee R, Schoolnik GK.  DNA microarrays and combinatorial chemical libraries: tools for the drug discovery pipeline.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000 Dec;4(12 Suppl 2):S189-93. Review.

Wiker HG, Wilson MA, Schoolnik GK.  Extracytoplasmic proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis - mature secreted proteins often start with aspartic acid and proline.  Microbiology. 2000 Jul;146 ( Pt 7):1525-33.

Wilson M, DeRisi J, Kristensen HH, Imboden P, Rane S, Brown PO, Schoolnik GK.  Exploring drug-induced alterations in gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by microarray hybridization.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26;96(22):12833-8.

Tobe T, Hayashi T, Han CG, Schoolnik GK, Ohtsubo E, Sasakawa C.  Complete DNA sequence and structural analysis of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adherence factor plasmid.  Infect Immun. 1999 Oct;67(10):5455-62.

Tobe T, Tatsuno I, Katayama E, Wu CY, Schoolnik GK, Sasakawa C.  A novel chromosomal locus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), which encodes a bfpT-regulated chaperone-like protein, TrcA, involved in microcolony formation by EPEC.  Mol Microbiol. 1999 Aug;33(4):741-52.

Behr MA, Wilson MA, Gill WP, Salamon H, Schoolnik GK, Rane S, Small PM.  Comparative genomics of BCG vaccines by whole-genome DNA microarray.  Science. 1999 May 28;284(5419):1520-3.

Yildiz FH, Schoolnik GK.  Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30;96(7):4028-33.

Bieber D, Ramer SW, Wu CY, Murray WJ, Tobe T, Fernandez R, Schoolnik GK.  Type IV pili, transient bacterial aggregates, and virulence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.  Science. 1998 Jun 26;280(5372):2114-8.

Imboden P, Schoolnik GK.  Construction and characterization of a partial Mycobacterium tuberculosis cDNA library of genes expressed at reduced oxygen tension.  Gene. 1998 Jun 15;213(1-2):107-17.

Yildiz FH, Schoolnik GK.  Role of rpoS in stress survival and virulence of Vibrio cholerae.  J Bacteriol. 1998 Feb;180(4):773-84.

Reich KA, Biegel T, Schoolnik GK.  The light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri possesses two distinct secreted ADP-ribosyltransferases.  J Bacteriol. 1997 Mar;179(5):1591-7.

Rock EP, Reich KA, Lyu DM, Hovi M, Hardy J, Schoolnik GK, Stocker BA, Stevens V.  Immunogenicity of a fusion protein linking the beta subunit carboxyl terminal peptide (CTP) of human chorionic gonadotropin to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB).  Vaccine. 1996 Nov;14(16):1560-8.

Ramer SW, Bieber D, Schoolnik GK.  BfpB, an outer membrane lipoprotein required for the biogenesis of bundle-forming pili in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.  J Bacteriol. 1996 Nov;178(22):6555-63.

Tobe T, Schoolnik GK, Sohel I, Bustamante VH, Puente JL.  Cloning and characterization of bfpTVW, genes required for the transcriptional activation of bfpA in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.  Mol Microbiol. 1996 Sep;21(5):963-75.

Sohel I, Puente JL, Ramer SW, Bieber D, Wu CY, Schoolnik GK.  Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: identification of a gene cluster coding for bundle-forming pilus morphogenesis.  J Bacteriol. 1996 May;178(9):2613-28.

Puente JL, Bieber D, Ramer SW, Murray W, Schoolnik GK.  The bundle-forming pili of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: transcriptional regulation by environmental signals.  Mol Microbiol. 1996 Apr;20(1):87-100.

Reich KA, Schoolnik GK.  Halovibrin, secreted from the light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri, is a member of a new class of ADP-ribosyltransferases.  J Bacteriol. 1996 Jan;178(1):209-15.

Verma NK, Ziegler HK, Wilson M, Khan M, Safley S, Stocker BA, Schoolnik GK.  Delivery of class I and class II MHC-restricted T-cell epitopes of listeriolysin of Listeria monocytogenes by attenuated Salmonella.  Vaccine. 1995 Feb;13(2):142-50.

Verma NK, Ziegler HK, Stocker BA, Schoolnik GK.  Induction of a cellular immune response to a defined T-cell epitope as an insert in the flagellin of a live vaccine strain of Salmonella.  Vaccine. 1995 Feb;13(3):235-44.

Grossman DA, Witham ND, Burr DH, Lesmana M, Rubin FA, Schoolnik GK, Parsonnet J.  Flagellar serotypes of Salmonella typhi in Indonesia: relationships among motility, invasiveness, and clinical illness.  J Infect Dis. 1995 Jan;171(1):212-6.

Shafer RW, Small PM, Larkin C, Singh SP, Kelly P, Sierra MF, Schoolnik G, Chirgwin KD.  Temporal trends and transmission patterns during the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in New York City: a molecular epidemiologic assessment.  J Infect Dis. 1995 Jan;171(1):170-6.

Almenoff JS, Jurka J, Schoolnik GK.  Induction of heat-stable enterotoxin receptor activity by a human Alu repeat.  J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun 17;269(24):16610-7.

Small PM, Hopewell PC, Singh SP, Paz A, Parsonnet J, Ruston DC, Schecter GF, Daley CL, Schoolnik GK.  The epidemiology of tuberculosis in San Francisco. A population-based study using conventional and molecular methods.  N Engl J Med. 1994 Jun 16;330(24):1703-9.

Reich KA, Schoolnik GK.  The light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri possesses a homolog of the Vibrio cholerae transmembrane transcriptional activator ToxR.  J Bacteriol. 1994 May;176(10):3085-8.

Cabral-Lilly D, Sosinsky GE, Reed RA, McDermott MR, Shipley GG.  Orientation of cholera toxin bound to model membranes.  Biophys J. 1994 Apr;66(4):935-41.

Schoolnik GK.  Purification of somatic pili.  Methods Enzymol. 1994;236:271-82.

Giron JA, Ho AS, Schoolnik GK.  Characterization of fimbriae produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993 Nov;175(22):7391-403.

Moscicki AB, Palefsky J, Smith G, Siboshski S, Schoolnik G.  Variability of human papillomavirus DNA testing in a longitudinal cohort of young women.  Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Oct;82(4 Pt 1):578-85.

Schoolnik GK.  Intimin and the intimate attachment of bacteria to human cells.  J Clin Invest. 1993 Sep;92(3):1117-8.

Small PM, McClenny NB, Singh SP, Schoolnik GK, Tompkins LS, Mickelsen PA.  Molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to confirm cross-contamination in the mycobacteriology laboratory and modification of procedures to minimize occurrence of false-positive cultures.  J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Jul;31(7):1677-82.

Almenoff JS, Williams SI, Scheving LA, Judd AK, Schoolnik GK.  Ligand-based histochemical localization and capture of cells expressing heat-stable enterotoxin receptors.  Mol Microbiol. 1993 May;8(5):865-73.

Small PM, Shafer RW, Hopewell PC, Singh SP, Murphy MJ, Desmond E, Sierra MF, Schoolnik GK.  Exogenous reinfection with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with advanced HIV infection.  N Engl J Med. 1993 Apr 22;328(16):1137-44.

Sohel I, Puente JL, Murray WJ, Vuopio-Varkila J, Schoolnik GK.  Cloning and characterization of the bundle-forming pilin gene of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and its distribution in Salmonella serotypes.  Mol Microbiol. 1993 Feb;7(4):563-75.

Ruehl WW, Marrs CF, George L, Banks SJ, Schoolnik GK.  Infection rates, disease frequency, pilin gene rearrangement, and pilin expression in calves inoculated with Moraxella bovis pilin-specific isogenic variants.  Am J Vet Res. 1993 Feb;54(2):248-53.

Moscicki AB, Palefsky JM, Gonzales J, Smith G, Schoolnik GK.  Colposcopic and histologic findings and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test variability in young women positive for HPV DNA.  J Infect Dis. 1992 Nov;166(5):951-7.

Ho AS, Sohel I, Schoolnik GK.  Cloning and characterization of fxp, the flexible pilin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila.  Mol Microbiol. 1992 Sep;6(18):2725-32.

Moshitch S, Doll L, Rubinfeld BZ, Stocker BA, Schoolnik GK, Gafni Y, Frankel G.  Mono- and bi-phasic Salmonella typhi: genetic homogeneity and distinguishing characteristics.  Mol Microbiol. 1992 Sep;6(18):2589-97.

Daley CL, Small PM, Schecter GF, Schoolnik GK, McAdam RA, Jacobs WR Jr, Hopewell PC.  An outbreak of tuberculosis with accelerated progression among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. An analysis using restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms.  N Engl J Med. 1992 Jan 23;326(4):231-5.

Young VB, Falkow S, Schoolnik GK.  The invasin protein of Yersinia enterocolitica: internalization of invasin-bearing bacteria by eukaryotic cells is associated with reorganization of the cytoskeleton.  J Cell Biol. 1992 Jan;116(1):197-207.

Giron JA, Ho AS, Schoolnik GK.  An inducible bundle-forming pilus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.  Science. 1991 Nov 1;254(5032):710-3.

Vuopio-Varkila J, Schoolnik GK.  Localized adherence by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is an inducible phenotype associated with the expression of new outer membrane proteins.  J Exp Med. 1991 Nov 1;174(5):1167-77.

Moscicki AB, Palefsky JM, Gonzales J, Schoolnik GK.  The association between human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid status and the results of cytologic rescreening tests in young, sexually active women.  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jul;165(1):67-71.

Hanna PC, Mietzner TA, Schoolnik GK, McClane BA.  Localization of the receptor-binding region of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin utilizing cloned toxin fragments and synthetic peptides. The 30 C-terminal amino acids define a functional binding region.  J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 15;266(17):11037-43.

Schoolnik GK.  Applications and transfer of technology to the nations of the South. Biotechnology and the control of childhood enteric infections.  Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1991 Jun;5(2):265-75. Review.

Palefsky JM, Winkler B, Rabanus JP, Clark C, Chan S, Nizet V, Schoolnik GK.  Characterization of in vivo expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E4 protein in cervical biopsy tissues.  J Clin Invest. 1991 Jun;87(6):2132-41.

Moscicki AB, Palefsky J, Gonzales J, Schoolnik GK.  Human papillomavirus infection in sexually active adolescent females: prevalence and risk factors.  Pediatr Res. 1990 Nov;28(5):507-13.

Riley LW, Junio LN, Schoolnik GK.  HeLa cell invasion by a strain of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli that lacks the O-antigenic polysaccharide.  Mol Microbiol. 1990 Oct;4(10):1661-6.

Ho AS, Mietzner TA, Smith AJ, Schoolnik GK.  The pili of Aeromonas hydrophila: identification of an environmentally regulated "mini pilin".  J Exp Med. 1990 Sep 1;172(3):795-806.

Young VB, Miller VL, Falkow S, Schoolnik GK.  Sequence, localization and function of the invasin protein of Yersinia enterocolitica.  Mol Microbiol. 1990 Jul;4(7):1119-28.

Frankel G, Riley L, Giron JA, Valmassoi J, Friedmann A, Strockbine N, Falkow S, Schoolnik GK.  Detection of Shigella in feces using DNA amplification.  J Infect Dis. 1990 Jun;161(6):1252-6.

Riley LW, Castro Munoz E, Zarate RJ, Sibley B, Keller J, Zarate LG, Millan Velasco F, Schoolnik GK.  Risk factors for acute childhood diarrhea in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico: a strategy for intervention.  Bull Pan Am Health Organ. 1990;24(2):210-6.

Judd AK, Schoolnik GK.  Peptides: chemistry, biology, and pharmacology.  Adv Pharmacol. 1990;21:221-85. Review.

Oksenberg JR, Ko C, Judd AK, Lim M, Kent A, Schoolnik GK, Steinman L.  Multiple T and B cell epitopes in the S1 subunit ("A"-monomer) of the pertussis toxin molecule.  J Immunol. 1989 Dec 15;143(12):4227-31.

Frankel G, Giron JA, Valmassoi J, Schoolnik GK.  Multi-gene amplification: simultaneous detection of three virulence genes in diarrhoeal stool.  Mol Microbiol. 1989 Dec;3(12):1729-34.

Frankel G, Newton SM, Schoolnik GK, Stocker BA.  Unique sequences in region VI of the flagellin gene of Salmonella typhi.  Mol Microbiol. 1989 Oct;3(10):1379-83.

Frankel G, Newton SM, Schoolnik GK, Stocker BA.  Intragenic recombination in a flagellin gene: characterization of the H1-j gene of Salmonella typhi.  EMBO J. 1989 Oct;8(10):3149-52.

Robinson EN Jr, Clemens CM, Schoolnik GK, McGee ZA.  Probing the surface of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: immunoelectron microscopic studies to localize cyanogen bromide fragment 2 in gonococcal pili.  Mol Microbiol. 1989 Jan;3(1):57-64.

Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK.  Structure-function analysis of protein active sites with anti-idiotypic antibody.  Methods Enzymol. 1989;178:163-71.

Oksenberg JR, Judd AK, Ko C, Lim M, Fernandez R, Schoolnik GK, Steinman L.  MHC-restricted recognition of immunogenic T cell epitopes of pertussis toxin reveals determinants in man distinct from the ADP-ribosylase active site.  J Exp Med. 1988 Nov 1;168(5):1855-64.

Ruehl WW, Marrs CF, Fernandez R, Falkow S, Schoolnik GK.  Purification, characterization, and pathogenicity of Moraxella bovis pili.  J Exp Med. 1988 Sep 1;168(3):983-1002.

Stephens DS, Whitney AM, Schoolnik GK, Zollinger WD.  Common epitopes of pilin of Neisseria meningitidis.  J Infect Dis. 1988 Aug;158(2):332-42.

Marrs CF, Ruehl WW, Schoolnik GK, Falkow S.  Pilin-gene phase variation of Moraxella bovis is caused by an inversion of the pilin genes.  J Bacteriol. 1988 Jul;170(7):3032-9.

Ribi HO, Ludwig DS, Mercer KL, Schoolnik GK, Kornberg RD.  Three-dimensional structure of cholera toxin penetrating a lipid membrane.  Science. 1988 Mar 11;239(4845):1272-6.

Stephens RS, Wagar EA, Schoolnik GK.  High-resolution mapping of serovar-specific and common antigenic determinants of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis.  J Exp Med. 1988 Mar 1;167(3):817-31.

Schmidt MA, O'Hanley P, Lark D, Schoolnik GK.  Synthetic peptides corresponding to protective epitopes of Escherichia coli digalactoside-binding pilin prevent infection in a murine pyelonephritis model.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Feb;85(4):1247-51.

Clayberger C, Parham P, Rothbard J, Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK, Krensky AM.  HLA-A2 peptides can regulate cytolysis by human allogeneic T lymphocytes.  Nature. 1987 Dec 24-31;330(6150):763-5.

Gariepy J, Judd AK, Schoolnik GK.  Importance of disulfide bridges in the structure and activity of Escherichia coli enterotoxin ST1b.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec;84(24):8907-11.

Riley LW, Junio LN, Libaek LB, Schoolnik GK.  Plasmid-encoded expression of lipopolysaccharide O-antigenic polysaccharide in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.  Infect Immun. 1987 Sep;55(9):2052-6.

Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK.  Anti-receptor antibodies designed to elicit "internal image"-bearing anti-idiotypes: a possible AIDS vaccine.  Med Hypotheses. 1987 Jul;23(3):303-7.

Ludwig DS, Finkelstein RA, Karu AE, Dallas WS, Ashby ER, Schoolnik GK.  Anti-idiotypic antibodies as probes of protein active sites: application to cholera toxin subunit B.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jun;84(11):3673-7.

Mietzner TA, Bolan G, Schoolnik GK, Morse SA.  Purification and characterization of the major iron-regulated protein expressed by pathogenic Neisseriae.  J Exp Med. 1987 Apr 1;165(4):1041-57.

Parham P, Clayberger C, Zorn SL, Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK, Krensky AM.  Inhibition of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes by peptides from the alpha 2 domain of HLA-A2.  Nature. 1987 Feb 12-18;325(6105):625-8.

Schoolnik GK, O'Hanley P, Lark D, Normark S, Vosti K, Falkow S.  Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: molecular mechanisms of adherence.  Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987;224:53-62. Review. No abstract available.

Morse SA, Mietzner TA, Bolen G, Le Faou A, Schoolnik G.  Characterization of the major iron-regulated protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis.  Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1987;53(6):465-9.

Gariepy J, Lane A, Frayman F, Wilbur D, Robien W, Schoolnik GK, Jardetzky O.  Structure of the toxic domain of the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin STI.  Biochemistry. 1986 Dec 2;25(24):7854-66.

Gariepy J, Mietzner TA, Schoolnik GK.  Peptide antisera as sequence-specific probes of protein conformational transitions: calmodulin exhibits calcium-dependent changes in antigenicity.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(23):8888-92.

Ludwig DS, Ribi HO, Schoolnik GK, Kornberg RD.  Two-dimensional crystals of cholera toxin B-subunit-receptor complexes: projected structure at 17-A resolution.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Nov;83(22):8585-8.

Goldfarb DS, Gariepy J, Schoolnik G, Kornberg RD.  Synthetic peptides as nuclear localization signals.  Nature. 1986 Aug 14-20;322(6080):641-4.

Kuno T, Kamisaki Y, Waldman SA, Gariepy J, Schoolnik G, Murad F.  Characterization of the receptor for heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli in rat intestine.  J Biol Chem. 1986 Jan 25;261(3):1470-6.

Gariepy J, Schoolnik GK.  Design of a photoreactive analogue of the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin STIb: use in identifying its receptor on rat brush border membranes.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jan;83(2):483-7.

Schmidt MA, O'Hanley P, Schoolnik GK.  Synthetic peptides protect against infection in a model of experimental pyelonephritis in mice.  Ann Sclavo Collana Monogr. 1986;3(1-2):389-98.

Waldman SA, Kuno T, Kamisaki Y, Chang LY, Gariepy J, O'Hanley P, Schoolnik G, Murad F.  Intestinal receptor for heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli is tightly coupled to a novel form of particulate guanylate cyclase.  Infect Immun. 1986 Jan;51(1):320-6.

Lammel CJ, Sweet RL, Rice PA, Knapp JS, Schoolnik GK, Heilbron DC, Brooks GF.  Antibody-antigen specificity in the immune response to infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  J Infect Dis. 1985 Nov;152(5):990-1001.

Walz W, Schmidt MA, Labigne-Roussel AF, Falkow S, Schoolnik G.  AFA-I, a cloned afimbrial X-type adhesin from a human pyelonephritic Escherichia coli strain. Purification and chemical, functional and serologic characterization.  Eur J Biochem. 1985 Oct 15;152(2):315-21.

Ludwig DS, Holmes RK, Schoolnik GK.  Chemical and immunochemical studies on the receptor binding domain of cholera toxin B subunit.  J Biol Chem. 1985 Oct 15;260(23):12528-34.

O'Hanley P, Low D, Romero I, Lark D, Vosti K, Falkow S, Schoolnik G.  Gal-Gal binding and hemolysin phenotypes and genotypes associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  N Engl J Med. 1985 Aug 15;313(7):414-20.

Taussig R, Kaldany RR, Rothbard JB, Schoolnik G, Scheller RH.  Expression of the L11 neuropeptide gene in the Aplysia central nervous system.  J Comp Neurol. 1985 Aug 1;238(1):53-64.

Watts TH, Gariepy J, Schoolnik GK, McConnell HM.  T-cell activation by peptide antigen: effect of peptide sequence and method of antigen presentation.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Aug;82(16):5480-4.

Marrs CF, Schoolnik G, Koomey JM, Hardy J, Rothbard J, Falkow S.  Cloning and sequencing of a Moraxella bovis pilin gene.  J Bacteriol. 1985 Jul;163(1):132-9.

Stephens DS, Whitney AM, Rothbard J, Schoolnik GK.  Pili of Neisseria meningitidis. Analysis of structure and investigation of structural and antigenic relationships to gonococcal pili.  J Exp Med. 1985 Jun 1;161(6):1539-53.

Sugar AM, Schoolnik GK, Stevens DA.  Antibody response in human nocardiosis: identification of two immunodominant culture-filtrate antigens derived from Nocardia asteroides.  J Infect Dis. 1985 May;151(5):895-901.

Schmidt MA, O'Hanley P, Schoolnik GK.  Gal-Gal pyelonephritis Escherichia coli pili linear immunogenic and antigenic epitopes.  J Exp Med. 1985 Apr 1;161(4):705-17.

Rothbard JB, Fernandez R, Wang L, Teng NN, Schoolnik GK.  Antibodies to peptides corresponding to a conserved sequence of gonococcal pilins block bacterial adhesion.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Feb;82(3):915-9.

O'Hanley P, Lark D, Falkow S, Schoolnik G.  Molecular basis of Escherichia coli colonization of the upper urinary tract in BALB/c mice. Gal-Gal pili immunization prevents Escherichia coli pyelonephritis in the BALB/c mouse model of human pyelonephritis.  J Clin Invest. 1985 Feb;75(2):347-60.

Guerina NG, Langermann S, Schoolnik GK, Kessler TW, Goldmann DA.  Purification and characterization of Haemophilus influenzae pili, and their structural and serological relatedness to Escherichia coli P and mannose-sensitive pili.   J Exp Med. 1985 Jan 1;161(1):145-59.

Rothbard JB, Schoolnik GK.  The primary sequence and antigenic structure of gonococcal pilin: approaches towards a gonococcal vaccine.  Adv Exp Med Biol. 1985;185:247-73. No abstract available.

Michael NL, Rothbard JB, Shiurba RA, Linke HK, Schoolnik GK, Clayton DA.  All eight unassigned reading frames of mouse mitochondrial DNA are expressed.  EMBO J. 1984 Dec 20;3(13):3165-75.

Edwards M, McDade RL, Schoolnik G, Rothbard JB, Gotschlich EC.  Antigenic analysis of gonococcal pili using monoclonal antibodies.  J Exp Med. 1984 Dec 1;160(6):1782-91.

Robinson EN Jr, McGee ZA, Kaplan J, Hammond ME, Larson JK, Buchanan TM, Schoolnik GK.  Ultrastructural localization of specific gonococcal macromolecules with antibody-gold sphere immunological probes.  Infect Immun. 1984 Nov;46(2):361-6.

Kreiner T, Rothbard JB, Schoolnik GK, Scheller RH.  Antibodies to synthetic peptides defined by cDNA cloning reveal a network of peptidergic neurons in Aplysia.  J Neurosci. 1984 Oct;4(10):2581-9.

Gariepy J, O'Hanley P, Waldman SA, Murad F, Schoolnik GK.  A common antigenic determinant found in two functionally unrelated toxins. J Exp Med. 1984 Oct 1;160(4):1253-8.

Labigne-Roussel AF, Lark D, Schoolnik G, Falkow S.  Cloning and expression of an afimbrial adhesin (AFA-I) responsible for P blood group-independent, mannose-resistant hemagglutination from a pyelonephritic Escherichia coli strain. Infect Immun. 1984 Oct;46(1):251-9.

Rothbard JB, Fernandez R, Schoolnik GK.  Strain-specific and common epitopes of gonococcal pili.  J Exp Med. 1984 Jul 1;160(1):208-21.

Norgren M, Normark S, Lark D, O'Hanley P, Schoolnik G, Falkow S, Svanborg-Eden C, Baga M, Uhlin BE.  Mutations in E coli cistrons affecting adhesion to human cells do not abolish Pap pili fiber formation.  EMBO J. 1984 May;3(5):1159-65.

Schoolnik GK, Fernandez R, Tai JY, Rothbard J, Gotschlich EC.  Gonococcal pili. Primary structure and receptor binding domain.  J Exp Med. 1984 May 1;159(5):1351-70.

Low D, David V, Lark D, Schoolnik G, Falkow S.  Gene clusters governing the production of hemolysin and mannose-resistant hemagglutination are closely linked in Escherichia coli serotype O4 and O6 isolates from urinary tract infections.  Infect Immun. 1984 Jan;43(1):353-8.

Waldman SA, O'Hanley P, Falkow S, Schoolnik G, Murad F.  A simple, sensitive, and specific assay for the heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli.  J Infect Dis. 1984 Jan;149(1):83-9.

Baga M, Normark S, Hardy J, O'Hanley P, Lark D, Olsson O, Schoolnik G, Falkow S.  Nucleotide sequence of the papA gene encoding the Pap pilus subunit of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  J Bacteriol. 1984 Jan;157(1):330-3.

O'Hanley P, Lark D, Normark S, Falkow S, Schoolnik GK.  Mannose-sensitive and Gal-Gal binding Escherichia coli pili from recombinant strains. Chemical, functional, and serological properties.  J Exp Med. 1983 Nov 1;158(5):1713-19.

Normark S, Lark D, Hull R, Norgren M, Baga M, O'Hanley P, Schoolnik G, Falkow S.  Genetics of digalactoside-binding adhesin from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain.  Infect Immun. 1983 Sep;41(3):942-9.

Schoolnik GK, Tai JY, Gotschlich EC.  A pilus peptide vaccine for the prevention of gonorrhea. Prog Allergy. 1983;33:314-31. Review.

Svanborg Eden C, Gotschlich EC, Korhonen TK, Leffler H, Schoolnik G.  Aspects on structure and function of pili on uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  Prog Allergy. 1983;33:189-202. No abstract available.

Cohen DJ, Schoolnik ML.  Herniation through the foramen of Winslow.  Dis Colon Rectum. 1982 Nov-Dec;25(8):820-2.

Eden CS, Freter R, Hagberg L, Hull R, Hull S, Leffler H, Schoolnik G.  Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue.  Nature. 1982 Aug 5;298(5874):560-2.

Leffler H, Lomberg H, Gotschlich E, Hagberg L, Jodal U, Korhonen T, Samuelsson BE, Schoolnik G, Svanborg-Eden C. Chemical and clinical studies on the interaction of Escherichia coli with host glycolipid receptors in urinary tract infection.  Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1982;33:46-51.

Schoolnik GK, Ochs HD, Buchanan TM.  Immunoglobulin class responsible for gonococcal bactericidal activity of normal human sera.  J Immunol. 1979 May;122(5):1771-9.

Mayer LW, Schoolnik GK, Falkow S.  Genetic studies on Neisseria gonorrhoeae from disseminated gonococcal infections. Infect Immun. 1977 Oct;18(1):165-72.

Buchanan TM, Pearce WA, Schoolnik GK, Arko RJ.  Protection against infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae by immunization with outer membrane protein complex and purified pili.  J Infect Dis. 1977 Aug;136 Suppl:S132-7.

Schoolnik GK, Buchanan TM, Holmes KK.  Gonococci causing disseminated gonococcal infection are resistant to the bactericidal action of normal human sera.  J Clin Invest. 1976 Nov;58(5):1163-73.